“Since there are only 20 genetically encoded amino acids, most amino acids are coded for by multiple codons. Bacteria and mammals prefer to use different codons, so that mammalian genes frequently use codons which are rarely employed in bacteria and vice versa. So it can happen that a mammalian gene may be expressed very poorly in bacteria, a significant problem. A way to deal with this is to look at the mammalian sequence, figure out which codons are optimal for bacterial expression, and synthesize an appropropriate DNA sequence specifically to efficiently express the mammalian gene in bacteria.” from  http://www.encorbio.com/protocols/Codon.htm

http://www.molbiol.ru/eng/scripts/01_19.html

http://www.zbio.net/eng/scripts/01_19.html

http://www.encorbio.com/protocols/Codon.htm

http://www.kazusa.or.jp/codon/

http://www.geneinfinity.org/sp/sp_codonusage.html

http://genomes.urv.es/OPTIMIZER/

http://www.jcat.de/

https://www.genscript.com/tools/rare-codon-analysis

https://www.biologicscorp.com/tools/CAICalculator/

https://omictools.com/optimizer-tool

https://bitesizebio.com/36561/codon-optimization-101/

 

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