When a heavy chain variable domain of antibody is expressed in a plasmid, it is called Nanobody.

” Problems with Antibodies

  • Conventional antibodies are a non-renewable reagent – Their production requires animal sacrifice and because they are an animal derived product, there can be lot-to-lot variability in activity.
  • No Genetic Tagging – Since antibodies are produced in animals instead of via recombinant DNA, they can’t be genetically tagged and instead are conjugated to reporters (i.e. fluorescent dyes, HRP, etc. ) after purification.
  • Antibodies are difficult for an individual lab to produce – Hybridomas offer an alternative and renewable source of monoclonal antibodies, but they are laborious to generate and costly to share.”
  • From:http://blog.addgene.org/ranbodies-reporter-nanobody-fusions