Nanobody & RANbody; a new techniqe to make antibody from plasmid expressin

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When a heavy chain variable domain of antibody is expressed in a plasmid, it is called Nanobody.

” Problems with Antibodies

  • Conventional antibodies are a non-renewable reagent – Their production requires animal sacrifice and because they are an animal derived product, there can be lot-to-lot variability in activity.
  • No Genetic Tagging – Since antibodies are produced in animals instead of via recombinant DNA, they can’t be genetically tagged and instead are conjugated to reporters (i.e. fluorescent dyes, HRP, etc. ) after purification.
  • Antibodies are difficult for an individual lab to produce – Hybridomas offer an alternative and renewable source of monoclonal antibodies, but they are laborious to generate and costly to share.”
  • From:




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ChIC&ChEC ChIP (2004)

CUT&RUN ChIP (2017)


Data visualization, bar naked: A free tool for creating interactive graphics

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Although bar graphs are designed for categorical data, they are routinely used to present continuous data in studies that have small sample sizes. This presentation is problematic, as many data distributions can lead to the same bar graph, and the actual data may suggest different conclusions from the summary statistics. To address this problem, many journals have implemented new policies that require authors to show the data distribution. This paper introduces a free, web-based tool for creating an interactive alternative to the bar graph

This tool allows authors with no programming expertise to create customized interactive graphics, including univariate scatterplots, box plots, and violin plots, for comparing values of a continuous variable across different study groups. Individual data points may be overlaid on the graphs. Additional features facilitate visualization of subgroups or clusters of non-independent data. A second tool enables authors to create interactive graphics from data obtained with repeated independent experiments

These tools are designed to encourage exploration and critical evaluation of the data behind the summary statistics and may be valuable for promoting transparency, reproducibility, and open science in basic biomedical research.”

ARB Project; rRNA phylogenetic treeing

Leave a comment  (rRNA sequence data phylogenetic treeing for rRNA and protein)    (A comprehensive on-line resource for quality checked and aligned ribosomal RNA sequence data.)

16s sequencing:

Primers for microbial detection by sequencing.

Primer Sequence
For bacteria 10F 5′-GTTTGATCCTGGCTCA
For full-length sequencing(only for bacteria



pPSU Plasmids for DNA Markers (Ladder)

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Cytopathic Effects in Cell Culture

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Or here: Cytopathic Effects in Cell Culture-www-kullabs-com

Protein Secondary Structure predictions online

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